Saturday, March 2, 2019
Smu Mb0044 Sem 2 2013 Solved
Q1. St take the important considerations for locating an automobile plant. A1. Automobile plant modify flaw lines, modifyassembly lines, flexible manufacturing systems, spherical transition rapid prototyping. Building manufacturing flexibleness things ar necessity. Ab emerge the automated ascend lines we potentiometer say it is a machine which is linked by a transfer system which shines the split by using handling machines which be too automated, we deport an automated flow line. Human intervention ma is needed to verify that the trading operations ate taking dumbfound fit to standards.When these cab be achieved with the assist of automation and the moldes argon conducted with self regulation, we leave al iodin have automated flow lines established. In fixed automation or hard automation, where one function is manufactured using services operations and machines it is possible to achieve this condition. We seize that crop life cycles are sufficiently stable to inte rest heavily on the automate flow lines to achieve reduces cast per unit. Product lay shine to the fores ate traffic patterned so that the assembly tasks are performed in the sequence they are designed at from each one station continuously.The finished item came out at the end of the line. In automated assembly lines the moving p all in allets move the materials from station to station and moving arms pick up parts, place them at specified place and system them by perusing, riveting, & crewing or dismantle welding. Sensors will keep track of there activities and move the assembles to the next stage. The machines are arranged in a sequence to perform operations according to the technical requirements. The tools are loaded, movements are yielded, speeds controlled mechanically without the need for trimers involvement.The flexibleness leads to better utilization of the equipments. It reduces thenumbers of systems and rids in reduction of investment as tumefy as a space needed t o install them. bingle of the major goatcers of modern manufacturing systems is to be able to respond to market Demands which have uncertainties. Prototyping is a process by which a new product is highly- ascended in small number so as to determine the wooingability of the materials, study the various manners of manufactured, type of machinery required and develop techniques to over scratch problems that my be encountered when full scale manufacture is undertaken.Prototypes do meet the condition of the component that enters a product and performance tail assembly be metric on these. It helps in con be reforming the design and any shortcomings give the sack be rectified at low address. flexibleness has three dimensions in the manufacturing field. They are variety, volume and time. There demands will have to be satisfied. In that sense they become constraints which restrict the maximization of productivity. Every business will have to meet the market demands of its various p roducts in variety volumes of unalike time.Flexibility is also needed to be able to develop new products or make improvements in the products fast enough to cater to shifting mug needs. Manufacturing systems have flexibility built into them to enable organization meet global demand. You have understood how the latest trends in manufacturing when implemented help firms to check-out procedure a head in business Q2. Explain essentials of Project heed Philosophy A1. Project Management Philosophy A project never goes smooth. It brings unexpected problems during the execution of any phase that marks a inconsistency amid the planned activities and authentic executions.The deviations enforce re- mean of further activities so that the special budget and time spent on previous activities can be compensated by revised project plan. A loser is a loser only when he realizes it and gives up. As long as one thinks he has the capability of changing lose situation to a gentle situation, he is never a loser. Project circumspection philosophy emphasizes on sharing the problems with all stakeholders and team members so that distinct brains come out with different responses and any of the response(s) can become the best solution(s).Challenge sharing decidedly brings out a solution from somebody else having a different company of experience and exposure who has already been into such a situation and has come out of it already. Sharing problems and challenges saves one from re-inventing the wheel. Documentation sharing and a fellowship sharing platform make a strong basis for memory all on the same wheel. Managers mostly focus on driving out results from the teams rather than enabling and empowering them to become self driven. Energy flows automatically and uncontrolled. Results start coming out without reaching the deadlines and prior to demand.It depends on jazzrs that by empowerment they start preparing or building leaders within the teams. A combination of leade rs, if synergized properly, propels a resultant progress of the project. Managers become critical break in engaging people in the project. A high take of engagement is lodged in the team members via project manager. As long as the project manager is able to drive teams, it makes them engaged to the project. On the otherwisewise hand if project manager inculcates and inspires team members to self-engage themselves, the team members do non depend to be driven by project manager.Q3. Several different strategies have been employed to assist in substance mean. Explain these in brief A3. Planning is a primary management responsibility. sum proviso is concerned with organizing the quantity and timing of production over a specialty period of time up to eight to ten months with undetermined demand. specifically heart and soul provision manner combining all of an organizations resources into one aggregate production schedule for a predetermined modal(a) time period. The objectiv e of aggregate planning is to maximize esources while minimizing monetary value over the planning period. The aggregate production plan is midway between short-range planning and long-range planning. Aggregate planning includes the following factors 1. control force size and composition 2. Demand forecasts and orders 3. Raw material planning 4. Plant faculty management 5. Utilizing outside subcontractors 6. Inventory management Aggregate planning is the link between short-term scheduling and long-term capacity planning. What are aggregate planning strategies? There are three types of aggregate planning strategies Pure Strategy.In this strategy, only one production or tote up factor is changed. Mixed Strategy. This strategy simultaneously alters two or to a greater extent production or supply factors or some combination. Level Scheduling. This strategy has been adopted by the Japanese and it embodies maintaining everlasting monthly production schedules. What aggregate planning strategies beguile demand? Aggregate planning can influence demand in the following ways 1. Pricing strategies. Pricing can be used to increase or reduce demand. All things cosmos equal, change magnitude prices reduces demand while lowering prices will increase demand. . advertizing and promotion strategies. Advertising and promotion are pure demand management strategies in that they can increase demand by making a product or service better known as intimately as positioning it for a particular market segment. 3. Delayed deliveries or reserving orders. Managing future bringing schedules is a strategy for managing orders when demand exceeds capacity. The net pith of delayed deliveries, or back ordering, and reservations is to shift demand to a subsequent period of time, often to a more slack period, which stomachs a smoothing effect for overall demand.However, the negative is that a percentage of orders will be lost as consumers are unwilling or unable to wait the additiona l amount of time. 4. Diversifying the product mix. Product mix diversification is a method used to byset demand seasonality. For example, a lawn mower manufacturing company may diversify into snow removal equipment to transferset the seasonality of the lawn mower industry. What aggregate planning strategies influence supply? Aggregate planning is also used to manage supply considerations by using the following strategies 1.Subcontracting (outsourcing). Subcontracting is a method of increasing capacity without incurring large capital investment charges. It can morsel the emulous good of other corporations to the contracting organizations advantage. However, subcontracting can be costly, and also reveals part of the business to potential competitors. 2. Overtime and swig time. A direct short-term strategy for managing production capacity is to any increase or decrease the number of the work force. This strategy has the advantage of utilizing the currently existing work force.H owever, overtime is expensive and can bring forth job burnout if relied upon too extensively. On the other hand, enforcing idle time on the work force can result in resistance as well as a drop in morale. 3. Hiring and laying off employees. Hiring and laying off employees is a medium- to long-term strategy for increasing or decreasing capacity. Hiring employees usually involves the cost of training while laying off employees can incur severance charges. Laying off employees can also cause labor difficulties with unions and reduce morale 4. Stockpiling inventory.Accumulating inventory is a strategy for smoothing divisions which may occur between demand and supply. 5. Part-time employees. certain industries have seasonal requirements for lower skilled employees. Aggregate planning can be used to manage these seasonal requirements. What is the charting method of aggregate planning? Charting is a highly utilized trial-and- geological fault aggregate planning method. It is relatively simple to use and is easily understood. Essentially, the charting approach uses a few variables in forecasting demand, applying current production capacity.While the charting method does not assure an close prediction, it is simple to implement requiring only minimal calculations. But trial and error method does not provide an optimal solution. The charting method requires five move to implement 1. Calculate each periods demand. 2. Calculate each periods production capacity for regular time, overtime, and subcontracting. 3. Determine all labor be including costs for hiring and layoffs as well as the cost of holding inventory. 4. Evaluate organizational employee and stock policies. . Create optional policies and assess their costs. poser 1. 30 A Florida mens suit shaper has created expected demand forecasts for the period June-January, as shown in Table 1. 2. The quotidian demand is calculated by dividing the total expected demand by the number of monthly working days AVERAGE DEMAND = innate EXPECTED DEMAND / NUMBER OF PRODUCTION DAYS FIGURE 1. 6 MONTHLY AND AVERAGE MENS SUIT DEMAND The interpret in Figure 1. 6 illustrates that there is a substantial variance between the monthly and average mens suit demand.What are the costs of aggregate planning? Aggregate planning is a systems methodological analysis having major organizational impacts. Every strategy has associated costs and benefits. change magnitude hiring means increasing training costs and incurring associated employment benefit costs. Increasing inventory increases carrying costs consisting of capital and storage costs, deterioration, and obsolescence. Using part-time employees involves the costs and risks of using improperly trained and inexperienced personnel as well as creating possible union conflicts.Using subcontractors has the cost of exposing an organization to potential competitors. EXAMPLE 1. 31 Using the data in example 1. 30, it is possible to develop cost estimates for the mens suit manufacturing business. Basically, the manufacturer has three choices 1. The manufacturer can meet expected monthly production fluctuations by change the work force size, hiring and laying off employees as needed. In this scenario, an self-confidence is made that the mens suit manufacturer has a constant staff of 55 employees. 2.Another alternative is to maintain a constant work force of 51 employees and subcontract for additional expected demand. 3. A terce alternative is to maintain a work force of 69 employees and investment firm suits during the slack demand months. Organizational Costs THREE PLAN drumhead COSTS In this example, the best production plan is plan 3 which maintains a work force of 69 employees and stores mens suit inventory during low demand months. Q 5 Explain the basic competitive priorities considered while formulating operationsstrategy by a firm? AnswerOperations strategy reflects the long-term goals of an organisation in its corporate strategy,a cle ar understanding of the operating(a) advantages and a good cross functional coordinationbetween functional areas of marketing, production, finance, and human resources departments arerequired. operating(a) advantages depend on its processes and competitive priorities considered whileestablishing the capabilities. The basic competitive priorities are Cost, Quality, Time, Flexibility Cost Cost is one of the primary considerations while marketing a product or a service.Being a lowcost producer, the product accepted by the customer offers sustainability and can outperformcompetitors. Lower price and better quality of a product will ensure higher demand and higherprofitability. To estimate the actual cost of production, the operations manager must addresslabour, materials, scrap multiplications, overhead and other initial costof design and development, etc. Quality Quality is defined by the customer. The operations manager looks into two importantaspects namely high performance design a nd undifferentiated quality.High performance design includessuperior features, greater durability, convenience to services, etc where as consistent designmeasures the frequence with which the product meets its design specifications and performs best. Time Faster delivery time, on-time delivery, and fast development cycle are the time factors thatoperations strategy looks into. Faster delivery time is the time lapsed between the customer orderand the delivery. On-time delivery is the frequency with which the product is delivered on time.Thedevelopment speed is the elapsed time from the idea generation up to the final design andproduction of products. Flexibility Flexibility is the ability to provide a wide variety of products, and it measures how fast themanufacturer can convert its process line used for one product to produce another product afterWhile customisation is the ability of the firm to satisfy the specific needs of each its customer, thevolume flexibility is the ability to accelerate or decelerate the rate of production to clutch thefluctuations in demand. For example, the production of fertilisers of different specifications andapplications.