Friday, March 1, 2019

Behavioral Influences Essay

Expectancy theory is re new-fangledd to the motivation of the employees which is hooked upon the employees behavior and incentives given by the management. If the management is fitted to motivate its employees they bequeath put in much effort while flexing, which means faculty blueer returns for the bulge outy. The three fractions of the forethought theory be expectancy, valence and orchestration (Vroom, 1964). All of these three variables ar required if an employee fates to be move positively. The expectancy serving is the belief that enlarge in efforts ordain accounts for go against process and vice versa.This means that a person is motivated if in that location is a positive each(prenominal)iance between efforts and doing given that he has proper training, resources and direction to per play the job. Expectancy is also affected by the confidence the employee has around on his capabilities. Valence comp adeptnt in the expectancy theory refers to the val ue populate place on the expected publication or rewards of their efforts. If a person is motivated brinyly by money, he might non value free insurance given by the company.Valence is the intensity of the desire of a worker for extrinsic and unalienable rewards such as promotion, fringe benefits, bonuses, ein truthwhere duration and satisfaction (Droar, 2003). instrumentality, the terce component of expectancy theory is the confidence on the higher authorities that if the per wreakance is well, the desired or promised reward will be received (Vroom, 1964). Instrumentality will be affected by the trust in people who understand decisions of the outcomes and gradation of biasness of the process of take upting an outcome. and then the theory tells us that the coitionship between the effort and process is positive, which means that incr quilt in effort will enhance murder (Vroom, 1964). According to the theory the relationship between exercise and rewards is also positive , which implies that better performance will leave in more(prenominal) rewards. In the given scenario, executive program As employees argon facing difficulty in coping up with the virgin production process. The chief(prenominal) reason for this is that the employees are not being paying(a) for their work. Those who achieve their goals are not given affluent compensation thence they feel unmotivated.When employees are not motivated, they do not put in enough effort to achieve their goals and hence their performance is not fine. The employees who perk up mastered the production process are not worried about accomplishing their goals because they sleep with that scour with added effort if they attain their goals, the compensation they will get is not worth the effort. Other employees, who start not mastered it, are not putting in enough effort because they think they are not capable of doing so. in that locationfore thither is a dire need for motivation of the employees w ho are under Supervisor A.The supervisory program should find out what resources, training or management of employees is needed to motivate the employees this is the expectancy component of the expectancy theory. The supervisor should also find out what do the employees value, their bonuses and salaries should be increased according to their performance this is the valence part of the expectancy theory. Supervisor also has to make sure that the perception of the employees about their supervisors promises is correct, they should be compensated as promised this is the instrumentality component.In the scenario, the employees salaries are not being increased as promised by the supervisor their bonuses after withholding tax tax are very small. Thus if the supervisor is able to occupy the gaps in all of these three components, he will be able to motivate the employees to increase effort and hence performance and the goals will be achieved. Task 2 The leaders carriage of draw B is tran sactional, loss leader C is transformational and Executive has a Level 5 leadership style.Transactional leadership focuses on setting peculiar(prenominal) goals for each team member and go on them to meet the hold upon goals (Bryant, 2003). In the scenario it is given that attraction B establishes short goals by clarifying role and task requirements and continually guiding subordinates in the direction of these goals, and therefore it is a characteristic of transactional leadership. In transactional leadership, the team members are awarded when they are able to achieve their goals on time and punished when agreed upon goals are not achieved or are not achieved on time (Iain, 2007).In the scenario given, Leader B considers the team member to be in person at fault if the delegated task is not realisedd and issues punishments for failures. Transactional leadership recognizes accomplishments of respective(prenominal) subordinates and they are rewarded for achieving the objective s agreed upon (Iain, 2007). In the scenario given, Leader B believes in a clear chain of commands and in rewarding good performance and recognizing employee accomplishments. Leader B also rewards subordinates for their successes.Leader Bs transactional leadership style has been justified now by including the examples from the given text. Transformational leadership depends more on personal relationship with subordinates and is supported by trust preferably than committing to contracts (Jung & Avolio, 1999). In the scenario it is given that Leader C tried to remember his team members birthdays and makes an effort to work with them as their coach instead of their autobus. Transformational leadership also tries to touch its followers self-interest and encourages the followers to replace these interests with the interests of the team.In the scenario, Leader C encourages the group to surpass their own self-interest for the betterment of the arrangement. This slip of leadership also focuses on organizational change through stress on new determine and different mental imagery of the future which transcends the status quo (Gellis, 2001). Leader C in the scenario also believes that the group stick out have long success when they are passionate and enthusiastic about a vision. Transformational leaders motivate its followers to achieve their goals through nurturing their mortal skills and capabilities (Bar scarceo, 2005).Leader C in the scenario sets high hopes for subordinates, instills case-by-caseism of employees for the benefit of organization and takes a sagacious problem-solving approach. The Level 5 leadership is described as being hesitating and unruly, shy and businessless and modest with a stern commitment to high standards (Jon Jenkins and Gerrit Visser, 2001). This type of leadership takes struggling organizations from being fine to great and produces different fine leaders at heart the organizations for future.The Level 5 leadership takes ind ebtedness for the failures and accredits different leaders for accomplishments (Jon Jenkins and Gerrit Visser, 2001). This leadership also establishes unique ideas, long-term vision and set for the organization. In the scenario, Executive A is clearly a take 5 leader as he shies away from attention and accredits others for achievements. He accepts responsibility for failures and sad results and feels delighted to produce strong leadership within the organization.Therefore it is apparent that Executive A is a Level 5 leader as he took the struggling organization into hands and reshaped the commonplace prices and company profits into eye-catching ones and he also shares his long-term vision, ideas and values with other leaders of the company. When the Executive A retires and if Leader B is plant as the CEO, then most of the employees in the organization will jumpstart working for their own interest as they will be held answerable for their failures and accomplishments and will be compensated accordingly.Supervision of the employees will become an inbuilt part of managers routine as they may use organizations resources for their personal interests. Transactional leadership is successful in stable organizations because it helps to make better pull wires over employees and reinforces constructive administrative actions through rewards and punishments. Therefore Leader B may find his style appropriate in the organization. Transformational leadership maintains employees performance through loyalty to organization, trust in the leader and changes in values and standards of the organization.Leader C has this style of leadership, and if appointed the CEO, the employees will surely have higher motivation and self-confidence they will get chances and supervision to improve their skills and capabilities. Through self-realization of employees and personal relationships with them, Leader C will be able to make them feel an integral part of the organization and increase their performance beyond expectations. Task 3 Individuals often take one of the bases of antecedent in an organization in which they are employed.There are five bases of agency which act as a source of organization they will be discussed one by one. The first one is dapple in Hierarchy (Woldring, 2001), that is the rank of the individual in an organization. The higher the individuals place in the organizational rank structure, the greater the forefinger he will have. In the given scenario, Employee 1 is using coif in hierarchy as the source of his power. He has worked in the market department for 12 years and he frequently comes to the office on weekends or stays late to make sure smooth caterpillar tread of tasks.The second base of power is Referent Power (Woldring, 2001) this is the personal relation of an individual with others who are higher in the organizational hierarchy. It only exists if the individual can actually reference the authenticity of relationshi p so that it can act as a basis of power. Employee 2 has this power as he negotiated with his manager to work four days a week and is the only person who is allowed to have a shorter work week. Third type of power is Reward Power (Raven, 1959) individuals who have a greater degree of control over resources of organization, have greater power.Individuals even lower in the organizational hierarchy can have greater controller over resources of the organization (Woldring, 2001). This power is based on the ability to give rich reward to others who perform well (Raven, 1959). In the scenario given, Employee 1 has this power as he is controlling the resources of his department to get the large bonus at the year end, and he will spend this bonus on his vacations. The fourth base of power is Demonst ranged Expertise (Woldring, 2001) an individual who has an exceptional dexterity or special live onledge that no other has in the organization. entirely having expertise is not sufficient, ot hers should know about the importance of this persons expertise and its value. Employee 2 has this power as he is the only company employee who can prepare pecuniary statements. The fifth and final source of power is Personality Power or Coercive Power (Woldring, 2001) the perceived nature of the individual is the power here. If the person has strong interpersonal skills, charming and agreeable personality, then he will be able to influence others to aline to his ideas or demands (Raven, 1959).This is the case with Employee 3, who has been in the organization for just a year, but because of his personality power, he was able to change entire departments beliefs. Relationship between Bases of Power and Dependency The Bases of Power use the innovation of Dependency. An employee can only use its base of power on some other employee if the other one is dependent on him. As Emerson (1962, p. 32) argues that power resides implicitly in the others dependency and that the power of A o ver B is equal to, and based upon, the dependence of B upon A.Therefore if a person B is dependent of another person A, only then the power of A exists. The level of power of person A depends upon the degree of dependence of person B on person A and the alternatives available to person B. If there is no dependence then power over another person does not exists. The accounting manager in the given scenario is the person who is dependent upon Employee 2 because of the Expertise power of Employee 2. Employee 2 is the only person in the organization who can prepare the financial statements and so the manager is dependent upon him to prepare it.Employee 1 is dependent upon selling manager for the award he wants, that is why he stays late in the office to make sure of the completion and accuracy of the work and he often come to office on weekends. Employee 3 was selected as the leader of the team working on new project all others related to the project are dependent upon him because of h is Coercive power. Task 4 The first problem with the companys current military rank form is that the rating scales in the form mostly focus on relationships with other employees and on the personality it is more of a personality test rather than performance and skills evaluation.Instead of evaluating the neatness of the workplace, relationships with peers, strength with others and friendliness, the questions should be more item to the performance and quality of work. Performance factors such as knowledge, skills, abilities, quality and timeliness of work, efforts of the employee, works habits, supervisory factors, cooperation, adaptability and potentness of communication should be evaluated. The second colligate in the evaluation form is that the rating scales are not special(prenominal) and measurable.The scale being used is to tramp an attribute is not numerical or scalar, high, low-medium, medium are being used to take a crap against the attribute. A better approach of scoring will be to use a scale with numeric scale, the highest described as Superior and lowest as Unsatisfactory. Another option of Not Applicable should also be present with all attributes. The use of measurable scale will ease the work for evaluator and he will be able to enumerate the employees attributes more accurately. The leash concern in the evaluation form is that the performance factors are not specific.When the manager had to give rating on the coordinates attitudes, he had to take in to account the unionises attitudes towards his job and tasks that he is assigned to do and also his attitudes towards co-workers and manager. The factors should be more specific so that the evaluator can give the ratings to specific attribute and every attribute is taken into account. In the scenario, the manager gave engineer a low rating in the attitude factor although his attitude towards work was very serious and he completed his tasks in a very well manner. He got a low rating beca use of his poor attitude towards the peers and manager.The 360-degree approach to employee evaluation involves supervisor, peers, and subordinates into the evaluation of an individual. This approach has its own pros and cons. umteen people participate in evaluating a person so it gives complete view of the performance of the person. The performance view is captured from the supervisor, peers and the subordinates, they respond as they imagine the persons performance. It reduces the bias of the supervisor or the manager towards an employee. It the supervisor does not likes the attitude of appearance of the employee, and then he might rate the employee with a lower score.If the employees attitude with the supervisor is not genial but the peers and subordinates like the attitude of the employee, then this can be captured in the evaluation process. Many people participate in the evaluation process, so the score becomes more reliable and more accurate. The supervisor may not have a per sonal relation with the employee and may not know him too well to rate his personality and attitude towards work. It is also come-at-able that the employee have had some kind of incident with the supervisor in the aside and since then the attitude towards the employee had become unfavorable.Then the supervisor would obviously rate him low in the performance factors. Most of the times in an organization, peers and co-workers know the employee better than the supervisor so when the peers will evaluate the employee, they will be able to give the ratings more accurately and their ratings will be more reliable than any others. The attitude of a person towards his sub-ordinates is also very important, this attitude can be recorded when sub-ordinates will take part in the evaluation process of the employee.And then after the evaluation, the employee can supplement his strengths according to others perception of his performance and personality. So, 360-degree approach to performance eval uation helps in evaluating the employee from many views and in recording reliable and more accurate learning then the traditional forms of evaluations and is not only helpful to the management to make important decisions but also is utilizable to the person being evaluated . There are some disadvantages too of including the supervisor, peers and subordinates in the evaluation process.One of the main disadvantages is that all the peers and subordinates may not like the personality of the employee being evaluated and may rate him very low based on his attitude and personality. The main purpose of evaluating an employee is to evaluate the performance and skills and attitude towards the work and tasks assigned to him. The co-workers and subordinates may have issues with employee being evaluated because of personality clash, and although his work is up to the mark and performance is well, but still the peers, supervisor and subordinates might give him low score on performance.There are a handful of employee performance evaluation methods three of them are top-down, peer-to-peer and 360-degree. Top-down is the most commonly used in the organizations today. It involves the direct manager of the employee in the evaluation process and is only useful if the manager knows his employee well enough. Peer-to-peer entails the employees of the same levels to review each other. Nobody knows the capabilities and performance of an employee better than his peer or co-worker. While it can be effective method, it can also be very unsuccessful at times.If there is jealousy among the co-workers or if there is competition then it is obvious that they will not rate each others in a reliable manner. When there are six-fold managers or multiple peers of an employee then these methods prove successful. The third method is 360-degree evaluation which takes into account the reviews of peers, subordinates and the managers or supervisors. In some organizations even suppliers and customers are involved in the evaluation process. While the advantage of multiple points of views is clear, it poses some threats also.Sometimes the subordinates may not give the true feedback of their managers because of the fear that manager will get to know about it. The following are the errors and biases that commonly affect the accuracy of performance evaluation. The first one is that the employees may favor the evaluation questions of their manager as they will fear that the manager will find out and so their review will not be true. The second is that the peers might not be mature enough or experienced enough to evaluate each other and they may form a cartel and rate each other well.The third example is that the manager does not the performance of his employee whom he is to evaluate because of no interaction with him, and he might just do the evaluation providing unfaithful information. In the given scenario, the evaluation form should be made more reliable and bias free and should b e more oriented towards the performance of the employee rather than the friendliness and the attitude towards the co-workers. The scale used should be numeric with the highest being the best and lowest being the most poor.Customers, subordinates, and co-workers should also be included in the evaluation process to make it fairer. References Online Journal Iain, Ph. D. Hay. (2007 ). Transactional and Transformational leaderships Compared. Leadership of Stability and leadership of vola tility, Volume 4, Issue 4. Retrieved 04 16, 2009, from Academic Leadership database. Website physical composition/Website/Author name. (Year, Month Day). Title. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from www. url. com Value Based Management. net/ master key Vroom. (2009, 03 23). Motivation and Management Vrooms Expectancy Theory.Retrieved 04 14, 2009, from http//www. valuebasedmanagement. net/methods_vroom_expectancy_theory. hypertext markup language Arrod. co. uk/Dave Droar. (2006, 12 31). Expectancy theory of m otivation. Retrieved 04 14, 2009, from http//www. arrod. co. uk/archive/concept_vroom. php Imaginal Training/Jon Jenkins and Gerrit Visser. (2001). Level 5 Leadership. Retrieved 04 14, 2009, from http//www. imaginal. nl/articleLevel5Leadership. htm Workplace Competence International Limited/Roelf Woldring. (2001). Power in Organizations A way of Thinking About What Youve Got, and How to Use It. Retrieved 04 16, 2009, from http//www. wciltd. com/pdfquark/powerorgv2. pdf

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