## Tuesday, June 4, 2019

### Expressions for Velocity of Sound in Different Media

Expressions for Velocity of Sound in Different MediaVELOCITY OF SOUND fluctuate IN STRINGS The upper, V of a sound gesture in mountain ranges is given by the expression.V= , = intensity per unit distance or linear density =Where r =radius of the wire, = density of material of the string or wire and T = tensionVELOCITY OF SOUND WAVE IN SOLIDSThe velocity, V of a sound shudder in a upstanding is given by the expressionWhere E = Youngs modulus of the material, = density of the solid or material.VELOCITY OF SOUND WAVE IN LIQUIDThe velocity, V of a sound wave in a liquid is given by the expressionWhere B = Bulk Modulus of the liquid, = density of the liquid.VELOCITY OF SOUND WAVE IN A GASThe velocity, V of a sound wave in a gas is given by the expression Where M = molecular mass, R = molar gas constant, = ratio of the two specific heat capacities of a gas, P = pressure and = densityVELOCITY OF WATER WAVEFor dusky water waves, V = For shallow water waves, V=For surface ripple s, V =Where = wavelength, d = depth of water, = surface tension, =density of water, g = speedup due to gravity.The conformable OscillatorConsider a simple p remainderulum consisting of a mass-less string of length l and a point like object of mass m attached to star end called the tag. Suppose the string is fixed at the other end and is initially pulled out at an angle from the vertical and released from rest from the figure below. bomb any dissipation due to air resistance or frictional pressures acting at the pivot.DiagramNote Is defined with respect to the equilibrium position.When, the bob has snuff itd to the right.When, the bob has moved to the left(a).Coordinate system give up-body force diagramTangential component of the gravitational force is(1)NoteThe tangential force tends to recompense the pendulum to the equilibrium value. If and if .The angle is restricted to the range . the string would go slack.The tangential component of quickening is (2)Newtons seco nd law, , yields (3)T= (4)Simple agreeable MotionDiagramThe object is attached to one end of a spring. The other end of the spring is attached to a wall at the left in the figure above. Assume that the object undergoes one-dimensional motion.The spring has a spring constant k and equilibrium length (l).Notex0 corresponds to an extended spring.xTherefore (5)Newtons second law in the x-direction becomes (6)Equation 6 is called the simple harmonic oscillator equating. Because the spring force depends on the distance x, the acceleration is not constant. is constant of proportionalityEnergy in Simple Harmonic MotionDiagram (7) (8)It is easy to calculate the velocity for a given t value (9)And the energy associated with (10)A stretched or compressed spring has certain electric probable energy.Diagrams( Hookes law) in order to stretch the spring from O to X one need to do work the force changes, so we have to integrateW= (11)NoteThis work is stored in the spring as its potential ene rgy U.So, for the oscillator considered, the energy U isU= (12)Therefore, the jibe energy is (13) (14) (15) (16)Equation (16) is a famous expression for the energy of a harmonic oscillator.NoteWhere A is the maximum displacement. The total energy is constant in time(t), but there is continuous process of converting to kinetic energy to potential energy, and then(prenominal) K backbone to U. K reaches maximum twice every cycle (when passing through x=0) and U reaches maximum twice, at the turning point.Diagram0In this graph time(t) was vex to zero when the mass passed the x=0 point.Finally, we can use the principle of conservation of energy to obtain velocity for an arbitrary position by expressing the total energy position as(17) (18) (19)Example 1A 200g block connected to a light spring for which the force constant is 5.00N/m is free to oscillate on a horizontal, frictionless surface. The block is displaced 5.00cm from equilibrium and released from rest.Find the full point of its motionDetermine the maximum speed of the blockWhat is the maximum acceleration of the block?Express the position, speed and acceleration as function of time.Example 2A 0.500Kg cart connected to a light spring for which the force constant is 20.0N oscillates on a horizontal, frictionless air track.Calculate the total energy of the system and the maximum speed of the cart if the amplitude of the motion is 3.0cmWhat is the velocity of the cart when the position is 2.00cm?Compute the kinetic energy and the potential energy of the system when the position is 2.00cm.Energy in wavesNoteWaves transport energy when they mete out through a medium. Consider a sinusoidal wave travelling on a string. The source of the energy is some external agent at the left end of the string, which does work in producing the oscillations. We can consider the string to be a non-isolated system. As the external agent performs work on the end of the string, moving it up and down, energy enters the system of the string and propagates along its length.Let us focus our attention on an element of the string of length and mass . Each element moves vertically with SHM. Thus, we can model each element of the string as simple harmonic oscillator (SHO), with the oscillation in the y direction. on the whole elements have the same angular frequency and the same amplitude A. The kinetic energy K associated with a moving particle isK= (20)If we apply this equation to an element of length and mass, we shall see that the kinetic energy of this element is (21) is the transverse speed of the element.If is the mass per unit length of the string, then the mass of the element of length is equal to. Hence, we can express the kinetic energy of an element of the string as (22)As the length of the element of the string shrinks to zero, this becomes a differential human relationship (23)Using the general transverse speed of a simple harmonic oscillator (24) (25) (26)If we take a snapshot of the wave at time t=0, then the kinetic energy of a given element is (27)Let us integrate this expression over all the string elements in a wavelength of the wave, which leave behind give us the total kinetic energy in one wavelength (28) (29) (30) (31) (32)NoteIn addition to kinetic energy, each element of the string has potential energy associated with it due to its displacement from the equilibrium position and the restoring forces from neighbouring elements. A similar analysis to that above for the total potential energy in one wavelength leave give exactly the same result (33)The total energy in one wavelength of the wave is the sum of the potential energy and kinetic energy (34) (35)As the wave moves along the string, this amount the energy passes by a given point on the string during a time interval of one period of the oscillation. Thus, the power, or rate of energy transfer, associated with the wave is (36) (37) (38) (39)NoteThis expression shows that the rate of energy transfer b y a sinusoidal wave on a string is proportional toThe square of the frequencyThe square of the amplitudeAnd the wave speed.Put differently, Is the rate of energy transfer in any sinusoidal wave that is proportional to the square of its amplitude.ExampleA taut string for which is under a tension of 8.00N.How much power must be supplied to the string to sacrifice sinusoidal waves at a frequency of 60.0Hz and an amplitude of 6.00cm?STANDING WAVESStationary WavesStationary wave is produced if the waveform does not move in the direction of all incident or the reflected wave. Alternatively, it is a wave formed due to the superposition of two waves of equal frequency and amplitude that are travelling in the reverse gear directions along the string.NoteYou can produce stationary wave on a rope if you tie one end of it to a wall and move the free end up and down continuously. Amazingly the superposition of the incident wave and the reflected wave produces the stationary wave in the rope. A standing wave is produced when a wave that is travelling is reflected back upon itself.Antinode is an area of maximum amplitudeNode is an area of zero amplitude.COMPARISON BETWEEN PROGRESSIVE (TRAVELLING) WAVE AND stationary (STANDING) WAVE.Example3A wave is given by the equation y= 10sin2. Find the loop length frequency, velocity and maximum amplitude of the stationary wave produced. tooth root